Ms Sultan refers to the case of Lars Hedegaard; he was convicted of the crime of saying, more or less, that Muslim men have no respect for women and often abuse young female relatives. At least that’s what he’s accused of saying; I’ve only seen a summary, which Hedegaard says was written by the prosecutor and doesn’t reflect his words. I don’t know what Hedegaard really said, and I don’t know whether he was right or wrong. But that isn’t the issue here. The Danish censorship law makes it a crime to criticize a religious group even if the criticism is valid. In a free country, you’re allowed to make such a statement even if it is false. In Denmark, honest discussion of that question is forbidden a priori. This demonstrates how little freedom of speech exists in Denmark.
Uncovering clues using nuclear techniques, Brazil and its neighbours are now well-acquainted with the Guarani Aquifer and can confidently expect that, with their new protection and sustainable use framework, water from the aquifer will continue to flow for at least another years. The aquifer influences the lives of millions of people. If it were no longer available, the impact would be enormous.
Student loan forgiveness and loan repayment programs provide borrowers a means of having all or part of their student loan debt forgiven or repaid in exchange for work or service in specific fields or professions or following a prolonged period during which their .
Plant operator TEPCO disclosed many months later that a drainage ditch near the wrecked reactors showed high concentrations of radiation and rainwater had leaked into the sea outside the enclosed harbor. TEPCO plans to pump up contaminated groundwater that has accumulated in the plant compound and remove radioactive materials so it can release the water into the sea. The utility has been seeking approval from local fishermen of the plan.
TEPCO became aware more than a year ago that the concentration of radioactive materials in the water flowing in the drainage ditch was high. The utility explained the situation to an NRA working group meeting held in January At that time, however, the cause of the high concentration was unclear. It suspected that the contaminated water was draining from slopes near reactor buildings. The utility covered the slopes and cleaned the drainage ditch. However, the concentration level did not decline.
EPA to consider Superfund cleanup of Ann Arbor’s toxic groundwater
The water is there for the taking, first come, first served. The century-old international agreement that governs every drop of Rio Grande surface water doesn’t apply to the water that courses underground. The binational aquifer — called the Mesilla Bolson on the U. But a growing regional population and heavy groundwater pumping on both sides are leading to faster depletion than is sustainable long term, with no binational accords to govern use. Scientists say the best quality water won’t last more than a decade.
New Mexico has long been the largest user of the aquifer.
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Groundwater, Age of Groundwater, Age of The age of groundwater is defined as the time that has elapsed since the water first entered the aquifer. For example, some of the rain that falls on an area percolates trickles down through soil and rock until it reaches the water table. Once this water reaches the water table, it moves though the aquifer. The time it takes to travel to a given location, known as the groundwater age, can vary from days to thousands of years. Measuring Groundwater Ages in Years Hydrologists employ a variety of techniques to measure groundwater age.
For relatively young groundwater, chlorofluorocarbons CFCs often are used. CFCs are human-made compounds that are stable in the environment. Atmospheric CFC concentrations increased from the time of their development in the s until the s, and hydrologists now know how atmospheric CFC concentrations have changed over time.
2 nations, 1 aquifer: Border wall can’t keep groundwater from draining away
Recent expansion in natural gas production, primarily as a result of new or improved technologies e. The terrorist attacks, which claimed nearly 3, lives, involved four civilian airplanes hijacked by 19 members of the Al Qaeda terrorist network. The first two airplanes were crashed into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in New
The combined concentration of Ra + Ra is often >5 pCi/L (the USEPA MCL value for Ra) in groundwater from the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer.. Water-quality characteristics that favor the mobility of radium include anoxic, Fe-reducing conditions and increased mineralization.
Groundwater Groundwater Water that occurs below the ground and is brought to the land surface by wells or springs is referred to as groundwater. Groundwater is a significant part of the hydrologic cycle, containing 21 percent of Earth’s freshwater. Groundwater comprises 97 percent of fresh water not tied up as ice and snow in polar ice sheets, glaciers , and snowfields.
This greatly exceeds the amount of water in streams, rivers, and lakes. Groundwater is critically important in supplying water to streams and wetlands, and in providing water for irrigation , manufacturing, and other uses. In the United States, 80 to 90 percent of available fresh water comes from groundwater.
Dependence on this resource will continue to grow, particularly in areas where surface water is limited or has already been fully allocated for existing uses, including instream requirements and particularly ecosystem needs. Groundwater once was thought to be of unlimited quantity and naturally protected by the soils above it. It is, however, significantly vulnerable to overuse and the improper use and disposal of chemicals at the land surface.
The proper use and protection of this resource requires an understanding of how the groundwater system works.
Groundwater, Age of
Geological Survey, co-authored part of a large study of groundwater supply in the coastal plain. Jeff Raffensperger, hydrologist with the U. The oldest bottle of wine, on the other hand, is the most savored.
by S. David Freeman 1. Nuclear power was born in a sea of euphoria out of a collective American guilt over dropping the atomic bomb. And for at least two decades it was the “clean” alternative to coal that was going to meet all of our energy needs forever.
Available online 2 December 2 December Publisher Summary The concentration of stable isotopes in groundwater depends mainly on the origin of the water. The concentration of radioactive isotopes and dissolved compounds in groundwater depends on the initial concentration and residence time of groundwater in the aquifer. These two factors determine the amount of radioactive isotope s decayed, removed, or added during water-rock processes.
As geochemical tools, stable and radioactive environmental isotopes provide information on the geochemical processes operating on groundwater and on the hydrogeological characteristics of aquifers. Information provided by environmental isotopes is also useful in modeling groundwater systems. This chapter discusses the scientific background of applications of environmental isotope techniques to groundwater hydrology.
The stable isotope composition of groundwater reflects that of the precipitation in the recharge area that seeps through the soil and the unsaturated zone to reach the water table. Stable isotopes are often used to identify groundwater recharge by rivers and lakes. These water bodies frequently have isotopic compositions different from that of precipitation over the study area.
How Old is our Groundwater? Groundwater Ages Groundwater can either be very young, representing recent recharge to the subsurface, or it can exist as very old water that has been interacting with the rock and sediments that host it. For example, a shallow flow system would constitute recharge in a small upland area followed by discharge to an immediately adjacent low-lying area.
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Harvesting rain The amount of water drawn from the Iullemeden has more than doubled over three decades, from 50 million cubic metres in to million cubic metres in , while the population that depends on water from the aquifer has shot up from six million in to 15 million in This might double by , says the research team at OSS. The number of boreholes and wells drawing water has increased from a few hundred points in the s to more than 17, in Digging deep Dodo of the OSS said the impression that the aquifer is under-exploited is not accurate.
The warning has serious implications. The OSS research team projects that there could be a drawdown of 10 metres of the deep waters of the IC by But the moment people dip into these deep waters, the risk of being exposed to water with a high concentration of minerals increases. Studies in early discovered high prevalence rates of the disease in parts of Niger and Nigeria.
WHO reported that since then people in some of these areas have been provided with alternative water.
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This long lag time means that changes in the use of nitrogen-based fertilizer the typical source of nitrate — whether the change is initiation, adjustment, or cessation — may take decades to be fully observed in streams, according to a recent study published in the journal Environmental Science and Technology.
Water quality experts have been noting in recent years that nitrate trends in streams and rivers do not match their expectations based on reduced regional use of nitrogen-based fertilizer. The long travel times of groundwater discharge, like those documented in this study, have previously been suggested as the likely factor responsible for these observations.
C(, %) C-band ==> Cバンド c contact ==> c接点 C-MACCS,Centre for Mathematical Modelling and Computer Simulation ==> 数理モデル・コンピュータシミュレーションセンター.
And a radio strontium free and a tritium free, and a radio iodine free and so on and on and on…and an incompetence free and a nuke pollution denialist free …future. The technology is there. But it isnt used due to the political and economic blackmail of nuclear industrial moguls. And it sucks in the dumb politicians. There is also a requirement for the proper management of related waste and material, because of the potential impact on human health.
The purpose of this report is to review and analyse experience in the application of different organizational and technological approaches to the management of waste containing 14C and tritium. This report also reviews different sources of waste containing 14C andtritium and their characteristics important in the selection of appropriate methods for the processing, storage, disposal and release of this type of waste.
It is also intended by the publication of this report to update the information on the management of tritium contaminated waste published by the IAEA in in Technical Reports Series No. Review of Data and Experience. This report was prepared by experts from five countries through a series of Consultants Meetings. They say they have it all under control. Officials of the Tokyo Electric Power Company TEPCO said on Friday they detected , becquerels per liter of beta ray-emitting radioactive substances — including strontium — at the site, a level 6, times higher than readings taken on Wednesday, NHK World reported.
Publications Groundwater is the largest source of freshwater for mankind. Isotope techniques are used to determine the origin and replenishment rates of groundwater, obtained through the use of stable and radioisotopes naturally present in groundwater. A further 69 per cent is locked up in polar icecaps, while rivers and lakes only represent one per cent.
Groundwater is often hidden deep in aquifers, permeable rocks and sediments and is extracted using pumping wells. Often, aquifers can be renewable water resources, slowly replenished by rainfall infiltration over hundreds up to many thousands of years.
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Dioxane town hall meeting in Ann Arbor on Oct. Environmental Protection Agency is going to conduct a preliminary assessment to determine whether the Gelman dioxane plume in Ann Arbor qualifies for a federal Superfund cleanup. An estimate of the extent of the Gelman dioxane plume. Plume boundaries shown here are based on a map created by Washtenaw County in February MLive Michigan Department of Environmental Quality officials and Dan Bicknell, an environmental remediation professional, also received copies.
The two townships, which border Ann Arbor to the west and north, and the local chapter of the Sierra Club submitted a petition to the EPA in November seeking Superfund status to make cleaning up the decades-old pollution that’s still spreading through the area’s groundwater a national priority. After careful evaluation, the EPA has decided to conduct the requested preliminary assessment to determine whether the plume is eligible for action under the federal Superfund law, otherwise known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, said Robert Kaplan, the EPA’s acting regional administrator.
The toxic chemical 1,4-dioxane was discharged into the environment by Gelman Sciences, a company that once operated on Wagner Road, between the s and s. The pollution remains the subject of ongoing legal negotiations, while limited pumping and treating is being done to remove dioxane from the ground. In addition to now agreeing to take a fresh look at the Gelman dioxane plume, the EPA in November included dioxane on a list of 10 chemicals the agency plans to newly reevaluate under reforms to the Toxic Substances Control Act.