History of Technology Heroes and Villains – A little light reading Here you will find a brief history of technology. Initially inspired by the development of batteries, it covers technology in general and includes some interesting little known, or long forgotten, facts as well as a few myths about the development of technology, the science behind it, the context in which it occurred and the deeds of the many personalities, eccentrics and charlatans involved. You may find the Search Engine , the Technology Timeline or the Hall of Fame quicker if you are looking for something or somebody in particular. Scroll down and see what treasures you can discover. Background We think of a battery today as a source of portable power, but it is no exaggeration to say that the battery is one of the most important inventions in the history of mankind. Volta’s pile was at first a technical curiosity but this new electrochemical phenomenon very quickly opened the door to new branches of both physics and chemistry and a myriad of discoveries, inventions and applications. The electronics, computers and communications industries, power engineering and much of the chemical industry of today were founded on discoveries made possible by the battery.
Earth’s magnetic field
The burial of these organisms also meant the burial of the carbon that they contained, leading to formation of our coal, oil and natural gas deposits. As the rate of C14 formation is independent from the levels of normal carbon, the drop in available C12 would not have reduced the rate of C14 production. Even if the rate of C14 formation had not increased after the Flood, there would have been a fundamental shift in the ratio towards a relatively higher radiocarbon content.
If the decaying magnetic field is conducted within the earth’s mantle, and if that mantle material were disturbed somehow, then the magnetic field would have been disrupted, causing the charge reversals and strength fluctuations that have been recorded in ancient lava flows and some metal artifacts.
Everything Worth Knowing About Scientific Dating Methods This dating scene is dead. The good dates are confirmed using at least two different methods, ideally involving multiple independent labs for each method to cross-check results. Sometimes only one method is possible, reducing the confidence researchers have in the results. Methods fall into one of two categories: These methods — some of which are still used today — provide only an approximate spot within a previously established sequence: Think of it as ordering rather than dating.
One of the first and most basic scientific dating methods is also one of the easiest to understand. Paleontologists still commonly use biostratigraphy to date fossils, often in combination with paleomagnetism and tephrochronology. A submethod within biostratigraphy is faunal association: Sometimes researchers can determine a rough age for a fossil based on established ages of other fauna from the same layer — especially microfauna, which evolve faster, creating shorter spans in the fossil record for each species.
Reference to a case where the given method did not work This is perhaps the most common objection of all. Creationists point to instances where a given method produced a result that is clearly wrong, and then argue that therefore all such dates may be ignored. Such an argument fails on two counts: First, an instance where a method fails to work does not imply that it does not ever work.
The question is not whether there are “undatable” objects, but rather whether or not all objects cannot be dated by a given method.
Paleomagnetism (or palaeomagnetism in the United Kingdom) is the study of the record of the Earth’s magnetic field in rocks, sediment, or archeological materials. Certain minerals in rocks lock-in a record of the direction and intensity of the magnetic field when they form.
Key concepts Absolute Dating The problem: By the mid 19th century it was obvious that Earth was much older than years, but how old? This problem attracted the attention of capable scholars but ultimately depended on serendipitous discoveries. Initially, three lines of evidence were pursued: Hutton attempted to estimate age based on the application of observed rates of sedimentation to the known thickness of the sedimentary rock column, achieving an approximation of 36 million years.
This invoked three assumptions: Constant rates of sedimentation over time Thickness of newly deposited sediments similar to that of resulting sedimentary rocks There are no gaps or missing intervals in the rock record. In fact, each of these is a source of concern. The big problem is with the last assumption. The rock record preserves erosional surfaces that record intervals in which not only is deposition of sediment not occurring, but sediment that was already there who knows how much was removed.
Strata which were deposited on top of one another without interruption.
Maybe a UFO landed on Mars, and the rock became lodged in its landing gear. Later, as the saucer was making its final approach into an alien base in Antarctica, the rock came loose and landed in the ice field. In short, the rock came to Earth the same way the dandelion came to North America – by ship. Reflecting on the situation, I thought that the changes on the seventh continent are so few that they hardly justify the creation of new maps.
If someone desperately needed a map of the South Pole, it would suffice to resort to a National Geographic map or to the nearest Rand McNally atlas.
From the New Latin word magnētismus, dating back to – See magnet, -ism. In substances in which the magnetic fields of each atom are aligned, the magnetic field causes the entire substance to act like single magnet-with north and south poles and a surrounding magnetic field.
September 23, Author: Many people have been led to believe that radiometric dating methods have proved the earth to be billions of years old. With our focus on one particular form of radiometric dating—carbon dating—we will see that carbon dating strongly supports a young earth. Basics Before we get into the details of how radiometric dating methods are used, we need to review some preliminary concepts from chemistry.
Recall that atoms are the basic building blocks of matter. Atoms are made up of much smaller particles called protons, neutrons, and electrons. Protons and neutrons make up the center nucleus of the atom, and electrons form shells around the nucleus. For example, all carbon atoms have 6 protons, all atoms of nitrogen have 7 protons, and all oxygen atoms have 8 protons. The number of neutrons in the nucleus can vary in any given type of atom. So, a carbon atom might have six neutrons, or seven, or possibly eight—but it would always have six protons.
The illustration below shows the three isotopes of carbon. The atomic number corresponds to the number of protons in an atom. Atomic mass is a combination of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. There are two main applications for radiometric dating.
Geomagnetic field decay
Electromagnetism Chapter 14 – Magnetism and Electromagnetism The discovery of the relationship between magnetism and electricity was, like so many other scientific discoveries, stumbled upon almost by accident. The Danish physicist Hans Christian Oersted was lecturing one day in on the possibility of electricity and magnetism being related to one another, and in the process demonstrated it conclusively by experiment in front of his whole class!
By passing an electric current through a metal wire suspended above a magnetic compass, Oersted was able to produce a definite motion of the compass needle in response to the current. What began as conjecture at the start of the class session was confirmed as fact at the end. Needless to say, Oersted had to revise his lecture notes for future classes!
His serendipitous discovery paved the way for a whole new branch of science:
Circular Path from Magnetic Field. If a charge moves into a magnetic field with direction perpendicular to the field, it will follow a circular path. The magnetic force, being perpendicular to the velocity, provides the centripetal force.
This nullifies the carbon method as well as demonstrating that the earth is less than 10, years old. The above is offered as a simple fact of research. Knowing how faulty creationist “facts” can be, let’s do a little research of our own. This argument was popularized by Henry Morris , p. In another creationist, Robert L. Whitelaw, using a greater ratio of carbon production to decay, concluded that only years passed since carbon started forming in the atmosphere!
The argument may be compared to filling a barrel which has numerous small holes in its sides. We stick the garden hose in and turn it on full blast. The water coming out of the hose is analogous to the continuous production of carbon atoms in the upper atmosphere. The barrel represents the earth’s atmosphere in which the carbon accumulates. The water leaking out the sides of the barrel represents the loss mainly by radioactive decay of the atmosphere’s supply of carbon Now, the fuller that barrel gets the more water is going to leak out the thoroughly perforated sides, just as more carbon will decay if you have more of it around.
Physics equations/Magnetic field calculations
A simple EMF detector! Both Pro and Free have: Data can now be saved live on text file for later use on a computer.
Archaeomagnetic dating is the study and interpretation of the signatures of the Earth’s magnetic field at past times recorded in archaeological materials. These paleomagnetic signatures are fixed when ferromagnetic materials such as magnetite cool below the Curie point.
History of geomagnetism As early as the 18th century, it was noticed that compass needles deviated near strongly magnetized outcrops. In , Von Humboldt attributed this magnetization to lightning strikes and lightning strikes do often magnetize surface rocks. Early in the 20th century, work by David, Brunhes and Mercanton showed that many rocks were magnetized antiparallel to the field.
Japanese geophysicist Motonori Matuyama showed that the Earth’s magnetic field reversed in the mid- Quaternary , a reversal now known as the Brunhes-Matuyama reversal. Blackett provided a major impetus to paleomagnetism by inventing a sensitive astatic magnetometer in His intent was to test his theory that the geomagnetic field was related to the Earth’s rotation, a theory that he ultimately rejected; but the astatic magnetometer became the basic tool of paleomagnetism and led to a revival of the theory of continental drift.
Alfred Wegener first proposed in that continents had once been joined together and had since moved apart. Keith Runcorn  and Edward A. Irving  constructed apparent polar wander paths for Europe and North America. These curves diverged, but could be reconciled if it was assumed that the continents had been in contact up to million years ago. This provided the first clear geophysical evidence for continental drift.
Then in , Morley, Vine and Matthews showed that marine magnetic anomalies provided evidence for seafloor spreading.
Glass, wood, copper, iron, wax, mercury Measurements H: Its simplicity masks its true importance as the first surviving electric motor. No such circular force had ever before been observed. Self-taught British scientist Michael Faraday — was the first to understand what these discoveries implied.
Sep 23, · Magnetic Field of the Earth Other factors can affect the production rate of C in the atmosphere. The earth has a magnetic field around it which helps .
According to the new research, the global magnetic field is weakening. The invisible force field around the planet that provides a shield from cosmic radiation and harsh solar winds, is weakening so rapidly that scientists believe it could even cause a reversal of Earth’s magnetic poles. Although the poles have never reversed since, the strength of the magnetic field has been draining at an alarming rate for the past years.
The newly-acquired data indicates that a particular region in Africa may play a major role in flipping the magnetic poles in future. Aurora Australis or “Southern lights” are seen in this picture captured by astronauts on the International Space Station with a digital camera while they passed over the Indian Ocean, Sept. Researchers believe the core region under southern Africa may actually be the birthplace of recent and likely future pole reversals.
Scientists found a pattern of recurring anomalous behavior in the region. They also found that the region experienced magnetic field fluctuations from AD, from AD, and again from AD. Scientists are still unclear about whether a major reversal of magnetic poles is imminent.
Magnetic pole reversal ahead? Is Earth headed to a pole reversal? A look at the archaeological record in southern Africa provides clues. Without a magnetic field, our atmosphere would slowly be stripped away by harmful radiation, and life would almost certainly not exist as it does today.
Nov 24, · Geomagnetic field decay is based on observations regarding the strength of Earth’s magnetic field for over the last years. Dr. Thomas Barnes determined that it is decaying and these findings imply a young age of the Earth because if the decay is projected back 20, years, the heat produced by the electric current that generates the Earth’s magnetic field would have liquefied the .
The idea is that the current is generated by a self sustaining dynamo, powered by the planet’s spin. The result is complex currents in the planet’s core that causes the field to fluctuate from time to time, and reversing itself about every – thousand years. Experiments have been performed to try to reproduce such a dynamo.
The Madison Dynamo Experiments from the University of Wisconsin Madison first experimented by using water in a sphere trying to mimic the flows of the alleged dynamo . The water was set in motion by counter-rotating propellers. The next set of experiments uses a large stainless steel sphere .
The earth’s magnetic field: evidence that the earth is young
Product was successfully added to your shopping cart. Go to cart page What Is Paleomagnetism? This entry was posted on June 29, by Apex Magnets. Paleomagnetism is the study of magnetic rocks and sediments to record the history of the magnetic field. Some rocks and materials contain minerals that respond to the magnetic field. So, when rocks form, the minerals align with the magnetic field preserving its position.
Geomagnetic reversal became supporting evidence for plate tectonics when it was the discovery that the Earth’s magnetic field has reversed its polarity times in the past. As new basaltic material is squeezed up into the midocean cracks and solidifies, it is magnetized according to the polarity of the Earth’s magnetic field.
But this shielding effect is far from constant, as the field strength varies significantly in both space and time. Over the last century, the field strength has changed relatively slowly: So what are geomagnetic spikes and what are the prospects and implications of another one coming along? These were dated from organic material within the slag heaps using radiocarbon dating.
By taking samples from different layers of the slag heap — with slightly different ages and magnetisation — they could also see how the field strength changed with time. The process that generated the spike is still shrouded in mystery, though it is likely related to the flow of iron within the core, which drags around the magnetic field as it moves currents produce magnetic fields. The core is heated from below and cooled from above, so the iron within is thought to undergo vigorous turbulent motion, similar to a strongly heated pan of water.